Ocean Transportation Ocean Transportation
By Carl E. McDowell and Helen M. Gibbs
1999/12 - Beard Books
189312245X - Paperback - Reprint -  491 pp.

Must reading for anyone interested in shipping as a strategic commercial asset in peacetime and a force multiplier during global conflict.

Publisher Comments

Category: Maritime & Transportation

Ocean Transportation gives a unique historical perspective of the shipping industry in the United States in the days following World War II. When first published in 1954, it was the first comprehensive book in two decades to discuss the principal aspects of ocean transportation. The book is primarily concerned with the techniques, practices, and problems of private ship ownership and operation, focusing on management from the point of view of the successful ship owner.

No book review available

Carl Elliott McDowell was Executive Vice President of the American Institute of Marine Underwriters and an Associate Professor of Transportation and Foreign Trade in The Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. 

Helen M. Gibbs, was a Research Consultant, Teaching Specialist and Research Associate in the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University.

Foreword, by Vice Admiral E.L. Cochrane, USN (Ret.) vii
1. Shipping--Sea Power and National Power, by Helen Gibbs  7
The Sea and Shipping to the Age of Columbus 7
Spain and Portugal 9
Growth of Dutch, English, and French Trade, 1500 to 1800 11
The Struggle for Asia and America 17
American Trade to the Civil War 20
Rise of British Commercial Supremacy 24
The Steamship 27
Sea Power and National Power--What They Consist of 30
2. Overseas Trade and Shipping Services, by Helen M. Gibbs 34
Growth of International Trade after 1849 34
Trade in Wheat and Cotton 37
The World's Tramp Fleet and Its Operations 43
Berth or Liner Service 47
Coal--Key to the British Carrying Trade 51
3. Overseas Trade and Shipping Services (Continued) , by Helen M. Gibbs 53
Petroleum and the Tanker 53
The Industrial Carrier and Its Cargoes 59
Nongeographical Factors Influencing Trade 61
The Postwar Situation 71
4. Trade Routes and Services, by Helen M. Gibbs 76
Physical Factors Influencing Trade Routes 76
Definition of Terms 81
United States Foreign Trade Routes 83
5. The United States Domestic Fleet and Its Employment, by Carl E. McDowell 92
Nature and Importance of Domestic Shipping 92
Development of Domestic Routes and Services 95
The Postwar Operator and His Problems 98
6. Merchant Fleets of the World, by Carl E. McDowell 104
Size and Ownership of World's Merchant Fleet 104
Active Merchant Tonnage and the Quantum of World Trade 107
Characteristics of Modern Ships 111
The American Merchant Marine 115


7. Traffic Management, by Carl E. McDowell 127
Explanation of Traffic Management 127
Functions of the Traffic Department 129
Obtaining and Booking Cargo 130
Shipper's Papers 133
Establishing Remunerative Rates 140
Interdepartmental Relations 140
Promotion of Domestic and Foreign Commerce 142
The Traffic Department 143
8. Freight Forwarding and Freight Brokerage by John H. Frederick 145
General Nature of Forwarding 145
Forwarding Functions 147
Forwarding Organizations 151
Forwarding and Brokerage Fees 152
Federal Regulation 153
9. Ship Operation: The Ship, by Carl E. McDowell 156
Components of Ship Operation 157
The Ship 158
The Terminal 166
Supervision and Administration 173
The Operational Process 175
Claims Division 181
Purchasing Division 183
10. Ship Operation: Charters, by Frank J. Zito 185
Charter Parties Defined 185
Demise or Bareboat Charters 187
Time Charters 190
Voyage Charters 193
Operation and Brokerage 201
11. Ship Operation : The Men, by Helen M. Gibbs 204
Officers and crew 204
Provisions under Which Ships Operate 210
Certificates, Licenses and Training 213
Wages, Hours, and Working Conditions 215
Labor Costs in the Total cost of Ship Operation 217
12. Organization and Management, by Helen M. Gibbs 221
Company Control 222
Freight Traffic Department 225
Passenger Traffic Department 229
Operating Department 230
Finance Department 234
Public-relations Department 236
Claims Department 237
Service and Supply Department 239
General and Research Departments 240
Agents and Agencies 240
Variations in Organizational Structure 241
Precedent and Conservatism 243


13. Government Aid, by Helen M. Gibbs 247
Nineteenth-century Mail Subsidies 248
Ineffective Aid to World War I 250
Benefits under the Merchant Marine Acts of 1920 and 1928 253
The Merchant Marine Act of 1936 257
Ship Sales after World War II 259
Construction-differential Subsidies 260
Operating-differential Subsidies 267
Reserve Funds 270
The Long-range Shipping Act of 1952 271
14. The Problem of Shipping, by Carl E. McDowell 274
Characteristics of Shipping Capital 274
Handicaps of American Shipping Capital 278
Block Obsolescence 282
Need for Public-relations Program 286
15. Accounting Policy and Practice, by Arthur B. Poole 288
Accounts Related to Operating Statements 289
Accounts Related to Balance Sheet 296
Steamship Accounting Methods and Procedures 298
Steamship Cost Accounting 302
Contrasts 306


16. Seaman's Law, by Harry L. Haehl, Jr. 309
Seaman Defined 310
The Seaman's Special Status 310
Compensation for Personal Injury or Death 313
Longshore Workers 320
Workmen's Compensation versus Employers' Liability 322
17. The Law of Vessels, by Harry L. Haehl, Jr. 325
Vessels in General 325
Control and Regulation 328
Maritime Liens and Mortgages 330
General Average 332
Carriage of Cargo and Passengers 334
Collision 338
Salvage and Towage 341
Pilotage 344
Limitation of Shipowner's Liability 345
18. Marine Losses and Marine Insurance, by Wather G. Hays 349
General Nature of Marine Underwriting 349
Forms of Marine Insurance Policies 351
Perils Insured against 357
Duration of the Coverage 359
Adjustment of Losses 360
Total-loss and Constructive Total-loss Claims 362
Particular Average or Partial Losses 364
General-average Claims 367
Salvage Claims 372
Collision Claims 373
Protection and Indemnity Claims 374
The Marine Insurance Program and Its Cost 375
19. Rates and Practices and Their Regulation, by Raymond F. Burley 380
Nature of Ocean Freight Rates 380
Factors Determining Rates 385
Origin of Conferences 389
United States and the Conferences 390
The Conference System 394
Regulation of Carriers in Domestic Trades 399
20. Laws and Agencies Governing Shipping, by J. Monroe Sullivan 409
Legislation to 1890 410
The Situation, 1890 to 1916 411
United States Shipping Board 412
United States Maritime Commission 415
Federal Maritime Board and Maritime Administration 419
Powers and Functions of the Executive Branch 424
21. International Conventions and Treatises, by Carl E. McDowell 430
Limited Accomplishment of International Agreement 430
Politico-Economic Agreements 432
Juridical Agreements 433
Technical Agreements 434
International Maritime Organizations 440
22. Merchant Shipping in Wartime and Emergency, by Carl E. McDowell 444
Unique Position of Merchant Shipping in War 444
Wartime Administration of Merchant Shipping 446
Function of the Shipping Industry in Wartime 451
Government Control of Merchant Shipping 452
North Atlantic Treaty Organization 458
Military Sea Transportation Service 458
Defense Mobilization and Korea 459
Conclusion 460
Index 461

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